Cognitive impairment is common in our society caused by disorders, such as dementia, stroke, mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and other neurological conditions.
One of the main causes is dementia, which is an irreversible degenerative brain disease
affecting one’s memory, thinking, behaviour and emotion.
Cognitive decline can lead to loss of memory, decline in executive function, impairments in the sensory and motor system, disruption in daily living.
Non-pharmacological Interventions, eg. Cognitive Training
Alzheimer’s Disease International Department of Health
Dementia in Hong Kong
Difficulty to performing familiar tasks
Difficulty in planning, organization and decision making
Forgetfulness, especially names of people and objects
Difficulty in following conversation involving more than one person
Learning and memory
Short-term memory loss
Confusion in time and places
Increased difficulty in concentration and easy distraction
Lost in initiatives to socialise
Research has shown that calligraphy can significantly improve CMMSE global score and cognitive functions such as memory, attention, and orientation for older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Other than a positive impact on cognitive health, calligraphy can also lead to an improvement in mental and physical health. In particular, it can lead to a reduction in stress, decrease in blood pressure, and improve in mood.
Chan, Sam C C et al. “Chinese Calligraphy Writing for Augmenting Attentional Control and Working Memory of Older Adults at Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD vol. 58,3 (2017): 735-746.
Mahjong Therapy can delay cognitive decline and prevent dementia in older adults, even for those with significant cognitive impairment. In particular, it has been shown to significantly improve short term and verbal memory, MMSE scores, attention, and hand-eye coordination. Also, studies have shown that playing mahjong lead to a drop in depression score and feelings of loneliness as well as an improvement in self confidence and moods. Thus, mahjong therapy can have a significant positive effect on players' cognitive and mental health.
Cheng, Sheung-Tak et al. “An exploratory study of the effect of mahjong on the cognitive functioning of persons with dementia.” International journal of geriatric psychiatry vol. 21,7 (2006): 611-7.
Game-based intervention can have positive impact on players' cognitive, physical, and mental health. Research has shown that cognitive activities can improve executive functioning and delay memory decline, which is often a predictor for dementia . Game-based intervention can also alleviate mood and improve balance and gait in older adults . Furthermore, it can reduce behavioural symptoms for people with dementia and increase their interactions with family, caregivers and other patients .
 Hall, C B et al. "Cognitive activities delay onset of memory decline in persons who develop dementia." Neurology vol. 73,5 (2009): 356-61
 Zheng, Jiaying et al. “Game-based interventions and their impact on dementia: a narrative review.” Australasian psychiatry : bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists vol. 25,6 (2017): 562-565.
 Narme, Pauline. “Benefits of game-based leisure activities in normal aging and dementia.” “Intérêts des activités ludiques dans le vieillissement normal et chez les patients présentant une pathologie neurodégénérative.” Geriatrie et psychologie neuropsychiatrie du vieillissement vol. 14,4 (2016): 420-428.